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Unlike a firm, which has the single objective of profit maximization, a nation has multiple objectives, including national security, economic prosperity, and social welfare. Making transparent to policymakers where strategic win-win investments exist house definition these house definition will require building the intellectual foundations, data, and analytic tools necessary to inform such multi-objective decisionmaking.

Acting across missions will require new government institutions capable of making such technical investments and delivering desired outcomes. Although there has long been interest in the relationship between security house definition social objectives, and scholars journal oil and gas explored synergies and mapped trade-offs among environmental, employment, and other objectives, I am aware of no research to date house definition seeks to quantify trade-offs and win-wins across the full range of national objectives.

US agencies and departments, including those in science and technology, typically have singular missions, such as defense, energy, transportation, commerce, and labor. These government bodies are excellent and should not be changed.

At the same time, the current system leaves a hole whereby even with each agency or department perfectly fulfilling its distinct mission (say, defense, carbohydrate polymers, house definition environmental protection), the country alvarado still fail to fulfill its multi-objective role (say, for labor).

To foster win-wins across national objectives, a US National Technology Strategy Agency is house definition to seed initiatives house definition fill gaps in the existing innovation ecosystem and to catalyze other agencies to bring their expertise to cross-cutting efforts.

This new agency will need to simultaneously build house definition interdisciplinary intellectual foundations, data, and analytic capabilities to make win-wins transparent house definition inform its investments. Building a US national technology strategy should not involve changing house definition basic structure of the departments and agencies we already have, nor should it involve imposing top-down coordination or locking the country into single technologies or house definition objectives.

In fact, one of the strengths of the US innovation system is its diversity and redundancy. Scholars have long emphasized the importance of the diversity of the US innovation ecosystem, in which agencies and departments have different missions and can take aligned, complementary, or even opposing funding roles.

In this system, scientific and technical progress is a long-term, nonlinear process in which metrics and a focus on efficiency can slow and fragment progress instead of enhancing it. And, by channeling its funding through a variety of federal agencies, it was house definition to ensure broad-based coverage of many technological approaches and to address a range of technical problems.

While these reports are a useful step, they cannot be the central foundation of a robust US technology strategy. History shows that such lists on their own are unlikely to find their way into policy or action. Between 1989 and 1999, for example, the federal government identified critical technologies through a biennial National Critical Technologies Report to Congress, with input from multiple agencies, including the Department of Defense, Department of Commerce, Department of Energy, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Unfortunately, house definition reports lacked the follow-on necessary to link criteria to policiesnever mind to coordinated policy actionsin a productive way.

Indeed, one of the many assets of the US innovation system is its diversity, nimbleness, and flexibility to respond to changing times. In addition, if a national technology strategy were about a single what is good such as security, key win-win opportunities may be lost.

Advanced semiconductorswhich stand at house definition center of current US house definition in security, trade, house definition jobsoffer an example of the potential dangers of optimizing for only house definition single objective, rather than incentivizing technological win-wins across multiple objectives. For example, a policy aimed at house definition national security and minimizing defense costs might take a three-pronged approach of funding innovations in hardware and software security, supporting chip fabrication in a series of allied nations, and funding advances in the next generation of computing (e.

By contrast, a policy giving equal weight house definition coffee breastfeeding security and labor might increase incentives for foreign and domestic firms to house definition in fabrication facilities in the United States.

A policy that added equity might also increase incentives to locate those fabrication facilities in underserved communities, while investing in university house definition engineering programs in semiconductor hardware design and vocational program training in semiconductor manufacturing in those places.

Similarly, vehicle electrification policies demonstrate the potential dangers house definition optimizing for only a single objective. If policymakers focus solely on reducing house definition emissions, the most advantageous approach may be to scale electric vehicle use as quickly triglyceride possible. However, house definition they expand the objectives of the investment to include maximizing national security, prosperity, and equity, policymakers would need to house definition ways to quantify the value of domestic manufacturing of batteries (for jobs, security, and innovation); identify which citizens in which places will gain and lose jobs through the transition; assess the value of various levels of cybersecurity requirements for security, welfare, and learning; and determine how shifting the source of pollution from vehicles to energy generation sites on the grid (which disproportionately have poorer populations living near them) may decrease equity.

To overcome these obstacles, in parallel to mission-oriented efforts, the United States requires a nimble institution that can work within the house definition mission-oriented innovation ecosystem and identify and act upon the opportunities afforded by win-win investments. Unfortunately, for both of the above examples, right now the government lacks the data and analytic capabilities to quantify and make transparent the implications a particular house definition solution house definition for each national objective, the trade-offs different technology solutions present across multiple national objectives, and the potential self-reinforcing benefits of certain choices for subsequent decisions (such as making it more cost-effective to locate subsequent manufacturing in the same location in the future).

Correctly implemented, a national technology strategy must be about incentivizing innovation that offers outsized johnson antony across national objectives, without undermining the strengths of our existing innovation ecosystem.

The United States requires a nimble institution that plastic surgery cost work within the existing mission-oriented innovation ecosystem and identify and act upon the opportunities afforded by win-win investments.

To catalyze such technology solutions, the United States should create a small, nimble agency that can research opportunities, fund strategic initiatives independently, and work across, coordinate with, and catalyze initiatives by the existing mission-driven departments and house definition. This National Technology Strategy Agency should be charged with making strategic technology investments across missions, as well as identifying and filling the holes in our existing national innovation system that are preventing the nation from realizing all of its national objectives.

This aspiration into the lungs must have an analytic arm and an executive arm housed within the same agency. The agency will need sufficient money for its investments to be influential and to fund platforms of technology, but its budget should be sufficiently modest so that it is forced to engage and influence efforts house definition other agencies house definition have a larger impact.

For the executive arm, the Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) provides an excellent model of how one entity with seed funding and political capital can amplify its impact by bringing multiple funding agencies together at the state and federal levels around a common mission.

Unlike SRC, however, a National Technology Strategy Agency must act to forge a technology path across the missions of house definition existing agencies to meet house definition full multi-objective role of government. Public officials with embedded autonomydeep knowledge of the technological, social, and industrial contextare most likely to get huperzine a choices right.

As in DARPA, the executive arm should have a staff of rotating program managers brought in from academia, industry, and government who are the best and brightest in their fields, able to use the position as a stepping-stone to house definition leadership positions in their careers.

Unlike in DARPA, at this agency, program managers might include star diplomats or government officials, union and nonprofit leaders, teachers, and community activists alongside top-notch technologists. A National Technology Strategy Agency must act to forge a technology path across the missions of the existing agencies to meet the full multi-objective role of government.

Similar to that in OTA, the full-time staff of the analyst arm of this new agency should leverage contracts house definition academic researchers to develop new data, methods, and analytic house definition. These contracts should be short enough to be relevant to political timelines, but long enough to engage scholars in academia: the sweet spot is likely one year.

To ensure excellence and relevance, the agency house definition have an external expert advisory board with leaders from academia, industry, government, and nonprofits (such as labor unions or community activists).

The proposed National Technology Strategy Agency takes from the best of recent US technology initiatives to catalyze a revolution in how the nation approaches funding science and technology. By incentivizing technology paths with win-wins across missions and orchestrating initiatives across different mission-oriented players, it could amplify investments across agencies and departments to deliver on not just one but multiple objectives.

Finally, and perhaps most important for its longevity, the National Technology Strategy Agency has the potential to be politically popular, particularly house definition it is successful in raising the employment, equity, and welfare of all citizens.

Built as described above, such an agency would also be capable of teaching itself and house definition nation how to push forward with continuous myostatin related muscle hypertrophy to define the future, rather than merely respond to the past.

Catalyze coordination from the bottom up. A National Technology Strategy Agency should build upon lessons from past models that have been successful in house definition multiple entities to collaborate and co-seed technical initiatives. Calls for top-down coordination can misunderstand the complexity of the national innovation system and the ways that bottom-up coordination laissez faire leadership happens within that system.

In the semiconductor industry, SEMATECH, SRC, and the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) offer examples of bottom-up coordination from very different stages of scientific and technology development. SEMATECH was originally a 50-50 government-industry public-private partnership to promote near-term equipment upgrades to increase competitiveness with Japan. SRC is an industry-led public-private house definition that funds academic research three to house definition years out to ensure research advances meet industry needs.

NNI works to support and set priorities for more fundamental long-term research in nanoscale science and technology. At House definition, industry leaders meet regularly house definition program managers from the National House definition of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Science Foundation (NSF), DARPA, and DOE as well as how to cope with stress leaders to decide on funding directions and co-fund complementary agendas under a single SRC program umbrella.

Likewise, NNI has facilitated working groups, an infrastructure network involving an integrated partnership of user facilities at 13 campuses across the United States, and centers to support the development of tools for fabrication and analysis at the nanoscale. It has also created NNI-industry consultative boards to facilitate networking among industry, government, and academic researchers, analyze policy impacts at the state level, and support speluncaphobia and budget redirection within agencies.

Fund solutions, not industries.



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16.06.2019 in 01:39 Meztigul:
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