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It is likely that reusing research data will increase in the near future as more data will become available, scholars are more informed about research data management, and data citation practices are established. PLoS ONE 15(8): e0233455. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The openness of research should be self-evident by the very nature of scientific inquiry relying on public criticism. Recently, the questions related to open science, open research data and open access have been lively discussed among research communities and policy makers (see e. These ideas have also affected research processes, not least because of the requirements Lidocaine 3% HCL Cream (CidalEaze)- Multum funding bodies (see e.

Openness and sharing are becoming important factors in the evaluation of impact, whether it concerns research infrastructures or scholars Methoxsalen (Uvadex)- FDA e. Sharing research data is an essential aspect in open science because of the possibility to verify given results and to enhance the effectiveness of research by Methoxsalen (Uvadex)- FDA reuse esfj t data. In physical and life sciences, and branches of medicine, the need for research data is immense, and thus the reuse seems profitable.

There are many open research data repositories for these fields (see e. In humanities and social sciences, sharing research data has not been as prevalent but research data repositories exist as well (see e. Besides research data Methoxsalen (Uvadex)- FDA and databases, research journals have also started to publish research data pertaining to published articles. These data, however, are rather Methoxsalen (Uvadex)- FDA verification than reuse purposes.

Release of research data as well as the organization of repositories have drawn a lot of attention, but are the opened data reused. The type of research data attracting interest for potential reuse and the purposes of reuse are less studied, especially concerning open social science research data.

This information is vital to understand the evolving Methoxsalen (Uvadex)- FDA creating practices, impact of research and the development of open science. We focus on these issues by analyzing usage data from Finnish Social Science Methoxsalen (Uvadex)- FDA Archive (FSD). We set forth the following research questions:In Section 2, we review the earlier literature pertaining to sharing and reusing research data.

In Section 3, our user data and research methods are introduced. Results are presented in Section 4, they are further discussed in Section 5 and Section 6 concludes the article. Sharing research data demands infrastructure for data management.

The research data vary greatly by disciplines, yet there is no clear-cut division into quantitative and qualitative disciplines in the era of digitalization. Nevertheless, different data types need different solutions for storage and access. The question is not only Methoxsalen (Uvadex)- FDA the data formats, like numeric or textual data, but also about the ownership of data and rights to use them. The data practices and research methods of disciplines also affect the management solutions.

The infrastructure for research data includes, among others, repositories, databanks, data grids, databases, archives and digital libraries. Legal and ethical issues are to be considered in data sharing. Participants in empirical research need Methoxsalen (Uvadex)- FDA give informed consents for data reuse; data may contain sensitive information and thus need anonymization.

Proprietary rights, copyrights and commercial interests are often involved. Data management needs planning and appropriate metadata. All this means that sharing data Methoxsalen (Uvadex)- FDA costs. The first prerequisite is awareness of the possibilities of sharing and infrastructure.

Data practices change towards Methoxsalen (Uvadex)- FDA as funding bodies and scholarly journals require data sharing and open publishing. Researchers themselves have started to insist opening research data for verification and replication purposes (e. Nevertheless, researchers may also have negative attitudes towards data sharing. Perceived career benefit and normative influence were the most important factors with a positive effect on data sharing behavior.

Perceived effort and career risk were the principal factors with negative effect Methoxsalen (Uvadex)- FDA data sharing behavior in the model. They analyzed factors affecting research data sharing at individual, institutional and international levels. Besides aforementioned reasons, they mention that at individual level experienced researchers are more willing to share data than early career researchers are.

At institutional level, the main driving forces and hindrances are Methoxsalen (Uvadex)- FDA smoking girls training Methoxsalen (Uvadex)- FDA research data sharing, compensation and institutional policies. Use and reuse of research data is an essential distinction.



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