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The material must be stored securely at a dedicated institution like the Norwegian Centre for Research Data (formerly NSD) or bristol myers squibb ltd National Archives of Norway.

Generally, it bristol myers squibb ltd important to ensure that public archives and private archives of value to research are kept for posterity and made available for research.

The National Archives play an important role here. In humanities and social science research, there is usually little risk of participants being exposed to serious physical harm. Bristol myers squibb ltd, serious mental strain is a possibility.

This may be more difficult to define and predict, and it can be difficult to assess the long-term effects, if any. Researchers nevertheless have responsibility for participants not being subjected to serious or unreasonable pain or stress.

The risk of causing minor strain bristol myers squibb ltd be balanced against both the benifit of the research for society and the value for bristol myers squibb ltd participants. Researchers must justify such benifit and value as specifically as possible, also to the parties involved (through information retrospectively). Researchers should also ensure that individuals involved are offered professional follow-up in order to process any problems that have arisen as a result of participation in the project.

Researchers should consider and anticipate effects on third parties that are not directly included in the research. Interviews, archival studies and observations often result in the researcher gaining access to information about far more individuals than those who are the focus of the study. The research may have an impact on the privacy and close relationships of individuals who are not included in the research, but who are drawn in as parties closely related to the participants.

In some cases, for example when a researcher observes groups and communities, it can be difficult to protect the privacy of individuals who have not given consent directly, or who have actively declined, but who nevertheless remain in the situation. Researchers have a responsibility nonetheless to protect the privacy of those individuals who are directly or indirectly affected by the research project.

Studies can be conducted in small and transparent communities, and the protection of third parties is especially important in such circumstances. Researchers should femur account of the possible negative consequences for third parties.

This is particularly important bristol myers squibb ltd vulnerable individuals, like children and minors, are indirectly involved in the research. In a society in which research results are used to assess and adjust decisions, it can be very difficult to prevent research from having negative consequences for groups and institutions.

Researchers should be aware of potential unintended consequences of their research, for example that other members of a group feel unreasonably exposed.

Children and adolescents who take part in research are particularly entitled to protection. Research on children and their lives and living conditions is valuable and important.

Children and adolescents are key contributors to this research. Their specific needs and interests must be bristol myers squibb ltd in ways supplementary to the general treatment of adult subjects. Children are developing individuals, and they have different needs and abilities at various phases. Researchers must know enough about children to be able to adapt both their methods and the direction of their research to the ages of the participants. Age-specific bristol myers squibb ltd must be provided about the project laws the consequences of the research, and they must be informed that participation is voluntary and that they may withdraw from the study at any time.

Consent is more problematic for research on children than research on adults. Children are often more willing to obey authority than adults, and they often feel that they cannot object.

Nor are they always able to see the consequences of participating in research. If a child is under the age of 15, researchers must usually obtain consent from their parents or guardians. An exception is made for sensitive personal data, which can only be acquired with the consent of the parents. In such cases, authorisation from the Data Protection Authority or a recommendation from a data protection officer is also required.

According to the Children Act, a child who has reached seven years of age, or younger children bristol myers squibb ltd are able to form their own bristol myers squibb ltd on a matter, must be provided with information and the opportunity to express their opinions. When a child has reached twelve years of age, a great deal of weight must be attached to his or her opinions.

In addition to the parents or guardians giving formal consent, it is necessary that the children themselves accept participation to the extent that they are able to do so. There may also be conflicts of interest between children and their parents or guardians. In some cases, it may be right to let children and adolescents take part in the research without the consent of their parents.

The requirement of confidentiality particularly applies when children take part in research. The obligation to notify applies, for example, if researchers learn that children are subject to abuse, assault or neglect (see point 9).

Participants are entitled to check whether confidential information about them is made available to others. Respect for privacy aims at protecting individuals against unwanted interference and exposure. This applies not only to emotional issues, but also to questions that involve sickness and health, political and religious opinions, and sexuality. Researchers should be especially attentive when they ask questions regarding intimate matters and they should avoid putting pressure on participants.

What participants perceive as sensitive information may vary from one individual or group to the next. It can be difficult to distinguish between the private and the public sphere, for example when conducting research on and via the internet.

Researchers must show respect for the values and views of research participants, not least when they differ from those generally accepted by society at large. Research is often concerned bristol myers squibb ltd the behaviour and values of minorities, bristol myers squibb ltd. Some persons may find this research to be intrusive or offensive. There is frequently uncertainty associated with exploration of motives, not least when it comes to research on other cultures or historical periods.

A clear distinction should therefore be drawn between description and interpretation, or between documentation of actual courses of events and different interpretations of such events.

Stronger evidence is required to ascribe more unusual motives to participants. Special documentation and argumentation are required for providing accounts of actions that ascribe unworthy motives to participants or motives other than those they invoke themselves.

Respect, documentation and accountability are also required when conducting research on deceased persons. Out of respect for the deceased and their beraved, researchers should choose their words with care. Archives and documents left behind by deceased persons may also contain sensitive personal data, and researchers must handle information about deceased persons and their descendants with care and respect.

Research on graves and human remains must be conducted with respect by the researchers. In situations where researchers relate to participants in a variety of capacities, they are responsible for defining the limits of their role and responsibility as a researcher.

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Comments:

12.08.2020 in 17:25 Meztiran:
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17.08.2020 in 05:03 Malami:
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