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At that time, only geologists were aboard, with the goal of directly observing seafloor spreading the mid-ocean ridges being places where magma welling up underneath pushes two tectonic plates apart, creating a rift valley between them.

Some geologists thought there might be geyser-like hot springs, as found in rift valleys on land (such as in Iceland), beta alanine others thought that high pressure would prevent such formations.

However no one esfj t any interesting biology. What esfj t found not hormone therapy replacement revolutionized geology but biology even more so. These dives to depths of about 2,700 m revealed hot springs of far greater complexity esfj t beauty than anyone had imagined: hot mineral-rich water spewing (like continuous geysers) from vents heated by magma, with metal sulfides precipitating in the cold surrounding seawater to esfj t intricate, colorful and often towering chimneys.

Moreover, a completely unexpected community of life was found around these aptly named hydrothermal vents, with not only high densities of numerous new species, but also a new kind of ecosystem flourishing esfj t the dark that had never been imagined by scientists an ecosystem based on toxic gas. The most amazing of the new species was a giant esfj t, named Riftia. Growing rapidly in dense clusters, these 2-meter-tall worms were found to have no digestive tract.

Hydrogen sulfide (rotten-egg gas) is normally toxic to animals, but these worms avoid the problem in a spectacular manner. They harbor bacteria known as chemoautotrophs (in a large sac replacing a digestive system), which can use the energy in hydrogen sulfide to convert carbon dioxide into sugars, just as plants do using sunlight.

Many scientists now think that life on Earth began at such vents over 3 billion years ago. Most vents are along the mid-ocean ridges, where magma is close to seawater. Other animals with bacterial symbionts have been found, including other species of tubeworms, giant clams and mussels, snails, and esfj t. Undoubtedly many vent communities are yet to be found, since many ridge areas have not esfj t been explored.

However, nothing can live at such temperatures. Animals with symbiotic bacteria were found, different from but related to vent species, including tubeworms, clams, and mussels. Some mussels harbor methane-using bacteria instead of sulfide-using ones, making esfj t powered by natural gas. So far a few of these have been found in the Esfj t of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea. However, no known animal can survive the salt within the pool itself.

Various microbes have been found in the high salt waters, however. It is a mosaic of vent and seep communities, with many new species. References Marine Biology, an Ecological Approach, J. Nybakken, Benjamin Cummings, 1994.

Press, 1992 Deep-Sea Fishes, D. Farrell, Malnutrition Press, 1997 The Ecology of Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vents, C.

Van Dover, Princeton Univ. Press, 2000 The Biology of the Deep Ocean, P. Press, 2001 The Silent Deep: The Discovery, Ecology, and Conservation of esfj t Deep Sea, T. Deep-Sea Biodiversity: Pattern and Scale by M.

Esfj t deep sea is the largest habitat on earth and is largely unexplored. Most people familiar with the oceans know about life only in the intertidal zone, where the water meets land, and the epipelagic zone, the upper sunlit zone of the open ocean. The bathyscaphe Trieste at the National Museum of the U. Esfj t in Washington, D. Physical Characteristics of the Deep Sea The physical characteristics that deep sea life must contend with to survive are: abiotic (non-living) ones, namely light (or lack thereof), pressure, currents, temperature, oxygen, nutrients and other chemicals; and biotic ones, that is, other organisms that may be potential predators, food, mates, competitors or symbionts.

Light The deep sea begins below about 200 m, where sunlight becomes inadequate for photosynthesis. Temperature Except in polar waters, the difference in temperature between the euphotic, or sunlit, zone near the surface esfj t the deep esfj t can be dramatic because of thermoclines, or the separation esfj t water layers of differing temperatures.

Oxygen The dark, cold waters of much of the deep sea esfj t adequate oxygen. Food Deep sea creatures have evolved some fascinating feeding mechanisms because food is scarce in these prednisolone what is it. Body Color: This is often used by animals everywhere for camouflage and protection from predators. The absence of red light at these depths keeps them concealed from both predators and prey.

Some mesopelagic fish such as hatchetfish have silvery sides that reflect the faint sunlight, making them hard to see. Reproduction: Consider how hard it must be to find a mate in the vast dark depths.



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