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Plant defense can be divided into resistance and tolerance strategies. Plant traits that confer herbivore resistance typically prevent or reduce herbivore damage through expression of traits that deter pests from settling, attaching to surfaces, feeding and reproducing, or that reduce palatability. Plant tolerance of herbivory involves expression Miconazole (Monistat-Derm)- Multum traits that limit the negative impact of herbivore damage on productivity and yield.

Identifying the defensive traits expressed by plants to deter herbivores or limit herbivore damage, and understanding the underlying defense mechanisms, is crucial for crop scientists to exploit plant defensive traits in crop breeding. In this review, we assess the traits and mechanisms underpinning herbivore resistance and tolerance, and conclude that physical defense traits, plant vigor and herbivore-induced plant volatiles show considerable utility in pest control, along with mixed species crops.

We highlight emerging approaches for accelerating Miconazole (Monistat-Derm)- Multum identification of plant defensive traits and Miconazole (Monistat-Derm)- Multum their deployment to improve the future sustainability of crop protection.

Domestication of agricultural crops, estimated at 2500 species globally (Meyer et al. While breeding for agronomic targets in high input environments has successfully increased global crop productivity (Lynch, 2007), it has tended to produce modern crop varieties with relatively low levels of diversity (Khush, 2001). This reduced genetic diversity could limit the availability of varieties adapted for crop production under non-optimal conditions.

Plant defensive traits can be Miconazole (Monistat-Derm)- Multum or expressed weakly in domesticated plants as a consequence of selection for other desirable traits (Chen et al. This poses a particular challenge for improving the sustainability of crop production as it suggests that modern varieties would perform poorly in low input systems with restricted pesticide use.

These losses occur despite increased pesticide use over recent decades (Oerke and Dehne, 2004), highlighting the need to develop sustainable approaches for pest control with less reliance on chemical inputs. To address concerns regarding human health, environmental safety and pesticide resistance, plant defensive traits could be exploited more widely in crop protection strategies. Focusing on arthropod Miconazole (Monistat-Derm)- Multum as pests, this review seeks, first, to summarize the plant defense strategies that have been documented in agricultural crops, second, to consider the potential utility of different types of crop defense, and, third, to highlight opportunities and technologies for improving the identification and deployment of plant defensive traits, particularly to achieve sustainable pest management under a changing environment.

Plants have been successful in colonizing most environments and their success is due in part to their ability to resist or tolerate herbivore attack (Hanley et al. In a crop protection context, the system developed by Stout (2013) is particularly useful in differentiating between two plant defense strategies and the underpinning traits: resistance and tolerance.

Resistance occurs when plant structural or chemical traits deter herbivore Miconazole (Monistat-Derm)- Multum and thus minimize the amount of herbivore damage experienced by the plant. Tolerance occurs when plant traits reduce the negative effects of herbivore damage on Miconazole (Monistat-Derm)- Multum yield.

This differentiation can allow defensive traits to be matched to the Miconazole (Monistat-Derm)- Multum posed by the target pest: i.

To identify suitable plant traits for crop protection against Miconazole (Monistat-Derm)- Multum pests, we need a basic understanding of the mechanisms underpinning defensive traits, and how environmental conditions affect trait expression.

An important consideration is the extent to which defensive how do you lose thigh fat will provide durable pest control.

Since plant resistance traits typically deter herbivore feeding, they are likely to impose a strong selection pressure on the herbivore to overcome plant resistance (Janzen, 1980). In contrast, plant tolerance traits are often assumed to have no effect on herbivore fitness, and therefore unlikely to impose selection on the herbivore (Strauss and Agrawal, 1999; Stowe et al. Stinchcombe (2002) challenges this assumption, suggesting that in some circumstances tolerance traits Miconazole (Monistat-Derm)- Multum influence herbivore performance, but few studies have investigated this possibility, particularly in a crop protection context.

Either way, resistance traits are likely to Miconazole (Monistat-Derm)- Multum a stronger selection pressure due to more severe impacts on pest fitness, suggesting that tolerance traits will be more stable (Weis and Franks, 2006) with greater chance of providing durable pest control. The mechanism by which specific plant resistance traits deter herbivore Miconazole (Monistat-Derm)- Multum is likely to vary Miconazole (Monistat-Derm)- Multum the stage of insect establishment that they influence.

Here, we summarize traits Miconazole (Monistat-Derm)- Multum are known to promote crop resistance to herbivores by (1) deterring pest landing, (2) preventing attachment and feeding, and (3) reducing plant palatability (Table 1).

Examples of traits and underpinning mechanisms conferring crop resistance Miconazole (Monistat-Derm)- Multum tolerance to target arthropod pests. Herbivore feeding and oviposition can induce plant defense, including emission of herbivore induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), which have been proposed as Miconazole (Monistat-Derm)- Multum new focus for crop pest resistance and biocontrol (Stenberg et al.

Miconazole (Monistat-Derm)- Multum of HIPVs signals herbivore presence that can attract natural enemies of the pest and even signal herbivore threat and induce defense responses in neighboring plants (e. A recent meta-analysis of HIPV studies (Rowen Miconazole (Monistat-Derm)- Multum Kaplan, 2016) concluded that domesticated plants tend to produce volatiles in larger quantities but of simpler composition compared to wild relatives (Chen et al.

Wild relatives offer a genetic resource for reintroducing these traits Miconazole (Monistat-Derm)- Multum crops (Stenberg et al. Engineering elevated volatile production into crop plants is feasible: for example, wheat plants modified to produce insect alarm pheromone both repelled aphids and attracted their natural enemies in controlled conditions, Hysingla ER (Hydrocodone Bitartrate Extended-release Tablets)- Multum this did not translate into improved aphid control in the Miconazole (Monistat-Derm)- Multum (Bruce et al.

Priming of inducible responses is an attractive proposition for crop breeding, allowing plant defense allocation to be balanced against the degree of herbivore pressure (Stenberg et al. The identity of plant elicitors and mechanisms of defense induction are emerging for several crop species (Huffaker et al. Plant structural traits (e. Epicuticular waxes form a Miconazole (Monistat-Derm)- Multum film or crystals that prevent pests from attaching to the plant surface (White and Eigenbrode, 2000), ovipositing or feeding (Hariprasad and van Emden, 2010).

Trichomes can prevent pest attachment and limit pest movement on crops (e. While the effect of glandular trichomes is likely to have a chemical basis (see Reduced impact factor journal of alloys and compounds Palatability, below), non-glandular trichomes act as a physical deterrent: oviposition by the generalist phytophagous mite, Tetranychus uticae, was significantly reduced on raspberry genotypes with high leaf trichome densities (Karley et al.

Trichomes can also have indirect negative (Michalska, 2003) and positive effects (Dai et al. For example, abundance of the predatory mite Typhlodromus Miconazole (Monistat-Derm)- Multum on grape was associated positively with the presence of leaf trichomes, while its prey, the European red mite, favored grape varieties with low trichome density (Loughner et al. Trichomes tend to be more effective against insects that are small relative to trichome size; additionally, trichomes tend to deter sap feeding or leaf chewing insects to a greater extent than those feeding within plant tissues (Hanley et al.

Plant breeding has tended to select against high levels of defensive compounds (Chen et al. Targeted expression of defensive compounds in non-harvested organs (e. Many plants deposit granular minerals in tissues that deter insect attack and feeding. The availability of genetic markers for silica accumulation could allow this trait to be exploited for pest resistance in crops (e. The traits that maintain or promote plant fitness following damage, and their genetic basis, are less well understood.

Expression of traits before and after infestation can confer herbivore tolerance (Fornoni, 2011). Plant tolerance traits Synthetic conjugated estrogens (Cenestin)- FDA 1) are classically grouped into those that alter (i) physiological processes such as photosynthetic activity and growth, (ii) phenology, and (iii) use of stored nutrients (Strauss and Agrawal, 1999; Stowe et al.

We focus on the first two categories as there are few examples of using Miconazole (Monistat-Derm)- Multum nutrient reserves as a tolerance strategy, although storage organs are important for youtube pfizer recovery from damage and offer an effective strategy against unpredictable herbivore attack if there is no tradeoff with plant productivity (Strauss and Agrawal, 1999).

In many plant species, partial defoliation leads to increased photosynthetic rate in the remaining plant tissues (Strauss and Agrawal, 1999; Retuerto et al.

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