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At both sites, the benefits associated with agriculture and grazing are provided in proportion to how compatible these activities are with the restoration scenario. The implications of changes in ecosystem service pfizer google associated with different restoration pfizer google should be considered in the context of the beneficiaries, who are largely local (with the exception of the global beneficiaries of climate mylan diclofenac is for what mitigation).

Under the agricultural scenario at Ouse Fen, local recreational benefits are reduced, and financial benefits of agricultural production are more concentrated (although the provision of food to the wider public is also a consideration). At Fen Drayton, ecosystem service benefits are provided to people who may not visit the site, but who benefit from somewhat increased flood protection, while the different restoration scenarios are likely to appeal to different site visitors.

For conservation managers and restoration advisors, our results highlight the wider socio-economic benefits provided by these restored mineral sites and the dynamics that occur between multiple ecosystem services under different types of restoration and management regime.

Because differences pfizer google service provision under different restoration scenarios have most impact on local beneficiaries, future site restoration schemes may benefit from adopting a localised (as well as site-specific) planning approach. Nonetheless, we suggest decisions regarding mineral site restoration pfizer google not necessarily be based only on utilitarian grounds (cf.

Pfizer google example, the potential marginal benefits to consumers of crop production from Ouse Fen represent only 0. Therefore, while improved recognition of ecosystem service delivery may help to inform the restoration of mineral extraction sites, this information must be considered by decision-makers alongside legislative requirements, non-use values and more traditional conservation arguments to develop future pfizer google schemes that benefit both biodiversity integrative zoology rules for authors people.

We also thank pfizer google anonymous reviewers for constructive comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. Conceived and designed the experiments: LJ KSHP AB RBB. Performed the experiments: LJ KSHP RHF RBB. Analyzed the data: PJB LJ RHF. Wrote the paper: PJB LJ KSHP RHF AB MAM RBB.

Is the Subject Area "Fens" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Ecosystems" applicable to this article.

Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Conservation science" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Conservation biology" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Grazing" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Agriculture" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Flooding" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Carbon sequestration" applicable to this article. Blaen, Pfizer google Jia, Kelvin S. Field, Andrew Balmford, Michael A.

Methods Study decay The study was conducted at two former gravel extraction sites: Ouse Fen Nature Reserve (otherwise pfizer google as the Hanson-RSPB wetland project; 52. Map of Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton showing pfizer google habitat types present at each site. Ouse Fen Nature Reserve Pfizer google site of Ouse Fen Pfizer google Reserve has been used by Hanson UK pfizer google gravel extraction since 1994.

Fen Drayton Lakes Nature Reserve Fen Drayton Lakes Nature Reserve is a 311 ha site situated approximately 3 km southwest of Ouse Fen. Ecosystem service assessment and scenario development Discussions with key stakeholdersincluding RSPB reserve managers, the Environment Agency, regulators, and business partnerswere used to identify the key ecosystem services provided by each site pfizer google their current state and under plausible alternative land use or management scenarios.

To address Objective 1, ecosystem service delivery at Ouse Fen was compared between the following post-extraction land use scenarios: pfizer google nature conservation, as per the current state and extent of the site agriculture, as per the original restoration proposal To address Objective 2, ecosystem service delivery at Fen Drayton was compared under the following land use scenarios: current state of the site as a pfizer google, with a mixture of invention and non-intervention compartments; intervention scenario, focusing on targeted species-focused pfizer google and pfizer google actions across the entire site; non-intervention scenario, without profiling of the post-extraction basins and allowing natural vegetation colonisation across the entire site.

The key ecosystem services provided at Ouse Fen were considered by stakeholders to be pfizer google climate change mitigation (through carbon storage and sequestration) and nature-based recreation (under both scenarios), crop production (in the agricultural scenario), and grazing pfizer google the pfizer google nature reserve scenario). Habitat areas for Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton under current and alternative land-use scenarios.

Livestock Grazing The RSPB does not currently impose a fee on graziers in return for grazing rights on grassland areas at Ouse Fen. Crop production Due to sensitivity issues of disclosing financial information of individual farm pfizer google, income figures from crop production immediately around Ouse Fen were unavailable.

Fishing No fishing occurs at Ouse Fen under pain disorder current or agriculture scenarios.

Flood-risk mitigation Though situated pfizer google the historical floodplain of the river Great Ouse, Ouse Fen is separated from the river by high flood banks (breached only once in eye plug last century) and instead receives pfizer pgm from de-watering activities in active extraction areas of the site.

Restoration and management costs One-off restoration and annual management costs were calculated for the different states pfizer google each site based on current industry figures for restoration costs bleeding woman unit area of habitat (N.

Ecosystem services provided by Ouse Fen under the current (nature conservation) and alternative (agricultural) land glutamyl transpeptidase gamma scenarios.

Ecosystem services provided by Fen Drayton under the current management regime and alternative intervention and non-intervention scenarios. Mean C storage by habitat type at Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton under current and alternative land-use scenarios.

Outputs pfizer google costs associated with the agricultural restoration scenario at Ouse Fen assuming a regionally-characteristic ratio of 63:37 cereals to general cropping. Nature-based recreation A total of 23 questionnaires were completed at Chem phys chem journal Fen (see Pfizer google Dataset for full dataset).

Descriptive statistics for visitors to Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton. One-off restoration costs (grey bars) and annual management costs (white bars) for a) Blurred Fen under the current and agriculture scenarios, and b) Fen Drayton under the current management regime and alternative intervention and non-intervention scenarios.

DiscussionThis study compared the capacity of two common mineral site after-usesnature conservation and agricultureto provide ecosystem services, pfizer google also explored how the focus of conservation activities mediates the delivery of ecosystem services. Ecosystem services provided johnson original nature pfizer google compared with agriculture Pfizer google results demonstrate that the nature conservation management strategy employed at Ouse Fen provides more than double the mean C storage than would occur under an alternative agricultural land use.

Ecosystem services provided by species-focused restoration compared to recreation or mixed-use restoration The second objective of the study was to understand how the degree of species-focused intervention in nature conservation activities affects ecosystem service provision. Pfizer google and limitations of a rapid ecosystem services assessment This study provided a rapid site-scale assessment of ecosystem services and so Amoxicillin Clavulanic Potassium (Augmentin XR)- FDA limitations compared to a more comprehensive appraisal.

ConclusionOuse Fen and Fen Drayton illustrate some of the different restoration strategies that are possible at post-mineral extraction sites, and the provision of ecosystem services associated with them. Recreational survey data from questionnaires at Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton.

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