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Non-stoichiometric cuprous oxide, Cu2O can be prepared in laboratory. In this oxide, copper to oxygen ratio is slightly less than 2:1. Can you account for the fact that this substance is a p-type semiconductor. As conduction Praluent (Alirocumab for Solution for Subcutaneous Injection)- FDA be due to the presence of these positive holes, hence it is a p-type semiconductor.

Ferric oxide crystallises in a hexagonal dose- packed array of oxide ions with two out of every three octahedral holes occupied by ferric Praluent (Alirocumab for Solution for Subcutaneous Injection)- FDA. Derive the formula of the ferric oxide. Classify each of the following as being either a p-type or n-type semiconductor :Question 21. What is the length of the side of the unit cell. However, in ionic solids, it is the ions that are responsible for the conducting behaviour due to their movement.

The atomic orbitals of metal atoms form molecular orbitals which are so close in energy to each other, as to form a band. If this band is partially filled or it overlaps with the higher energy unoccupied conduction band, then electrons can flow easily under an applied electric Praluent (Alirocumab for Solution for Subcutaneous Injection)- FDA and the metal behaves as a conductor. If the gap between valence band and next higher unoccupied conduction band is large, electrons cannot jump into it and such a substance behaves as insulator.

Such a substance shows some conductivity and it behaves as a semiconductor. Electrical conductivity of semiconductors increases with increase in temperature, since more electrons can jump to the conduction Praluent (Alirocumab for Solution for Subcutaneous Injection)- FDA. Silicon and germanium show this type of behaviour and are called intrinsic semiconductors. Conductors have no forbidden band. Solution: (i) Schottky defect : In Schottky defect a pair of vacancies or holes exist in the crystal lattice due to the absence of equal number of cations and anions from their lattice points.

It is a common defect in ionic compounds of high coordination number where both cations and anions are of the same size, e. Due to this defect density of crystal decreases and it begins to conduct electricity to a smaller extent. This defect Praluent (Alirocumab for Solution for Subcutaneous Injection)- FDA generally found in ionic crystals where anion is much larger in size than the cation, e.

Due agrawal nonlinear fiber optics this defect density does not change, electrical conductivity increases to a small extent and there is no change in overall chemical composition of the crystal. Due to this defect the density of the substance increases. F-centres impart colour to crystals. The colour results by the excitation of electrons when they absorb energy from the visible light falling on the crystal.

Aluminium crystallises in a cubic close packed structure. Its Juvéderm Ultra XC (Hyaluronic Acid Injectable Gel)- FDA radius is 125 pm.

To maintain electrical neutrality it occupies one position and thus creates one cation vacancy. Such substances remain permanently magnetised, once they have been magnetised. This type of magnetic moments are due to unpaired electrons in the same direction. The ferromagnetic material, CrO2, is used to make magnetic tapes used for audio recording.

The property thus exhibited is called paramagnetism. They are magnetised in the same direction as that of the applied field. This property is shown by those substances whose atoms, ions or molecules contain unpaired electrons, e. These substances, however, lose their magnetism in the absence of the magnetic field. Ferrimagnetism arises due to the unequal number of magnetic moments in opposite direction resulting in some net magnetic moment.

Antiferromagnetism is due to the presence of equal number of magnetic moments in the opposite directions (v) 13-15 group compounds : When the solid state materials are produced by combination of elements of groups 13 and 15, the compounds thus obtained are called 13-15 compounds. For example, InSb, AlP, GaAs, etc. For example, ZnS, CdS, CdSe, HgTe, etc. In these compounds, the bonds have ionic character.

Classify the following as amorphous or crystalline solids: Polyurethane, naphthalene, benzoic acid, Teflon, potassium nitrate, cellophane, polyvinyl chloride, Praluent (Alirocumab for Solution for Subcutaneous Injection)- FDA, copper Ans: Crystalline solids: Benzoic acid, potassium nitrate, copper Amorphous solids: Polyurethane, Teflon, cellophane, polyvinyl chloride, fibreglass 1.

Therefore, the thorax solids become conducting 1. Classify each of the following as being either a p-type or n-type semiconductor : Ge doped with In B doped with Si. Solution: Ge is group 14 element and In is group 13 element. B is group 13 element and Si is group 14 element, there will be a free electron, So, it is an n-type semiconductor.

In terms of band theory, what is the difference between a conductor and an insulator between a conductor and a semiconductor. Solution: In most of the solids and in many insulating solids conduction takes place due to migration of electrons under the influence of electric field. Explain the following terms with suitable examples : Schottky defect Frenkel defect Interstitial defect F-centres.

How many unit cells are there in 1. Explain the following with suitable example: Ferromagnetism Paramagnetism Ferrimagnetism Antiferromagnetism 12-16 and 13-15 group compounds.

Solution: (i) Ferromagnetic substances : Substances which are attracted very strongly by a magnetic field are called ferromagnetic substances, e. Molecular solids: The constituent particles in these types of solids are either atoms or molecules. The atoms or molecules are held together by weak forces of attraction. Molecular solids are divided further into non-polar molecular solids, polar molecular solids, and hydrogen-bonded molecular solids.

The atoms or molecules in these solids are held together by weak dispersion or London forces. These solids are non- conductors of electricity. EX: Solid sulphur dioxide and solid hydrochloric acid. The molecules in polar molecular solids are held together by relatively stronger dipole-dipole interactions. These solids have relatively high melting and boiling points. These solids are soft and non-conductors of electricity.

EX: Ice and solid hydrofluoric acid The molecules in these solids are held together by strong forces of attraction called hydrogen bonds.

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