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Acta Neurochir 88:104-108, 1987 Seiler RW et al: Supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage after posterior fossa operation. Neurosurgery 18:472-4, 1986 Miyamoto Y et al: Postoperative intracerebral hematoma remote from the site of craniotomy.

Neurol Med Chir 25:219-222, 1985 Standefer M et al: The sitting position in neurosurgery. Neurosurgery 14:649-658, 1984 Waga S et al: Intracerebral hemorrhage remote from the site of the initial neurosurgical procedure. Neurosurgery 13:662-665, 1983 Chadduck WM et al: Cerebellar hemorrhage complicating cervical laminectomy.

Neurosurgery 9:185-9, 1981 Heros RC et al: Intracerebral hemorrhage after microsurgical revascularization. Neurosurgery 6:371-5, 1980 Haines SJ et al: Supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage following posterior fossa surgery. J Neurosurg 49:881-6, 1978 REMOTE CEREBELLAR HEMORRHAGE Typical (Left) Coronal FLAIRMR shows heterogenous signal in spontaneous left cerebellar hemorrhage (arrows) following frontal craniotomy in a patient with sudden clinical deterioration.

No other abnormalities Sulfur Hexafluoride Lipid-type A Microspheres Injectable Suspension (Lumason)- FDA identified. Same case as above and on left. The RCH (open arrow) was initially read Sulfur Hexafluoride Lipid-type A Microspheres Injectable Suspension (Lumason)- FDA post-surgical subarachnoid hemorrhage, Stroke ATHEROSCLEROSIS, INTRACRANIAL Coronal graphic shows atherosclerotic plaques (open arrows) involving major intracranial arteries.

Inset shows penetrating arteries (white arrows) and lacunar infarcts (black arrows). Distal ICA (open happy family life is reconstituted via ophthalmic artery collaterals (arrow).

Stroke Zaidat 00 et al: Obstet gynecol middle cerebral artery stenosis diagnosed by magnetic resonance angiography. Neuroepidemiology 22:37-40,2003 Hirai T et al: Prospective evaluation of suspected stenoocclusive disease of the intracranial artery. AJNR 23:93-lO1,2002 Lernfelt B et al: Cerebral atherosclerosis as predictor of stroke and mortality in representative elderly population.

Stroke 33:224-9, 2002 Pico F et al: Longitudinal study of case studies in thermal engineering atherosclerosis and white matter hyperintensities. Cerebrovasc Dis 14:109-15,2002 Kramer CM: Magnetic resonance imaging Sulfur Hexafluoride Lipid-type A Microspheres Injectable Suspension (Lumason)- FDA identify the high-risk plaque.

AmJ CardioI21:90(lOC):15L-17L, 2002 Droste DW et al: Evaluation of progression Sulfur Hexafluoride Lipid-type A Microspheres Injectable Suspension (Lumason)- FDA spread of atherothrombosis. Cerebrovasc Dis 13 Suppl1:7-11, 2002 Carr JC et al: Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of the carotid circulation. Top Magn Reson Imaging 12:349-57, 2001 Summers PE et al: MR Angiography in cerebrovascular disease. Clin Radiol 56:437-56, 2001 Thijs VN et al: Symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis.

Neurology 55:490-7, 2000 Osborn AG: Atherosclerosis and carotid stenosis. JCAT 22:167-78, 1998 Garcia JH et al: Carotid atherosclerosis: definition, pathogenesis, and clinical significance. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America 6: 801-10, 1996 Consigny PJ: Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. AJR 164: 553-8, 1995 Heiserman JE et al: Intracranial vascular occlusions.

Radiol 185:667-73, 1992 Wolpert SM et al: Current role of cerebral angiography in the diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases. AJR 159:191-7, 1992 North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial Collaborators. NEJM 325:445-53, 1991 Schwaighofter BW et al: MR imaging of vertebrobasilar vascular disease.

JCAT 14:895-904, 1990 Okazaki H: Fundamentals of Neuropathology, ed 2, pp 27-70, Tokyo: Igaku-Shoin, 1989 Beckman CF et al: The effect of sequential arterial stenosis on flow and pressure. DSA goals include assessment of cervical and intracranial stenosis. Distinction from occlusion Sulfur Hexafluoride Lipid-type A Microspheres Injectable Suspension (Lumason)- FDA as occlusion requires no treatment. Note delayed arterial contrast phase in area supplied, while normally perfused brain is capillary phase.

Variant (Left) Axial FLAIRMR shows high signal in the right cavernous internal carotid artery (curved arrow), which can be due to slow flow or occlusion. In this case, diagnostic angiography revealed slow flow. Classic vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia in this patient with posterior circulation T1As. Slow, stagnant flow caused intravascular enhancement.

Stroke ATHEROSCLEROSIS, EXTRACRANIAL Graphic of ASVD. Stroke 35:83-5, 2004 Moll R et al: Value of the CT angiography in the diagnosis of common carotid artery bifurcation disease: CT angiography versus digital subtraction angiography and color flow Doppler.

Note the ulcerated plaque (open arrow) in ICA. Delayed phase run (important in cases such as these with occlusion or pseudo-occlusive disease) showed no "string sign". Moderate calcified plaque is seen along the posterior wall of the left carotid bulb (arrow); mile on the right. Typical (Left) Lateral DSA shows a left CCA injection.

Hemostats mark an area of moderately severe ASVD affecting post-bulbar ICA. Staging, Grading or Classification Criteria 34 8. Northrop johnson of known cerebrovascular 19.

Lee SH et al: Comparative analysis of the spatial distribution and severity of cerebral microbleeds and old lacunes. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 75:423-7, 2004 Gass A et al: Diffusion-weighted MRI for the "small stuff": the details of acute cerebral ischemia. Cerebrovasc Dis 17 Suppl1:58-62, 2004 van Straaten EC et al: Operational definitions for the NINDS-AIRENcriteria for vascular dementia: an interobserver study.

Stroke 348:1907-12, 2003 Udaka F et al: White matter lesions and dementia. Ann N Y Acad Sci 977:411-5,2002 van Den Boom R et al: Subcortical lacunar lesions.

Radiol 224:791-6,2002 Schmidt R et al: The natural course of MRI white matter hyperintensities. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. Acta Neurol Scand 105:355-64, 2002 Schmidt R et al: Risk factors and progression of small vessel disease-related cerebral abnormalities. J Neural Transm Suppl. Stroke 32:1318-22,2001 Schmidt H et al: Angiotensinogen gene promoter haplotype and microangiopathy-related cerebral damage. Stroke 32:405-412, 2001 Marti-Fabregas J et al: Blood pressure variability and leukoariosis amount in cerebral small-vessel disease.

Acta Neurol Scand 104:358-63, 2001 Auer DP et al: Differential lesion pattern in CADASILand sporadic subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy.



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