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Rounded optic (arrow), tabs johnson infundibular (curved arrow) recesses of 3rd ventricle, tabs johnson of 4th ventricle (open arrow) are indicated. Velum interpositum (curved arrow) lies above pineal. Normal (Left) Coronal graphic shows the septum pellucidum separating frontal horns of lateral ventricles.

Foramen of Monro is Y-shaped, with common stem emptying into roof of 3rd tabs johnson (arrow). Foramen of Monro is filled with enhancing choroid plexus, thalamostriate veins (arrows).

Pillars of fornix (open arrow) do not enhance. CAVUM SEPTI PELLUCIDI (CSP) 1 8 Coronal graphic with axial insert shows classic cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) with cavum Vergae (CV) sp39. Note finger-like CSF collection between lateral ventricles.

The fornices are not visible and the ICV is flattened (arrows). Ventricles and Cisterns 9 1 10 Sagittal graphic with tabs johnson insert shows a CVI. Note elevation, splaying of fornices (open arrows), inferior displacement of internal cerebral veins and 3rd ventricle (arrow). Axial T2WI MR shows a small triangular-shaped CSF space, the CVI (open arrow), interposed between the fornices (arrows) and lateral ventricles.

The CVI ends at the foramen of Monro. REFERENCES Eisenberg VH et al: Prenatal diagnosis of cavum velum interpositum cysts: significance and outcome. Am J Zortress (Everolimus)- FDA Gynecol.

WI MR shows a very large CVI. Note splaying of fornices (arrows), anterior displacement of septum pellucidum (oRen arrow). Mild enlargement of lateral ventricles is seen. The corpus callosum is elevated, thinned. Ventricles and Cisterns 11 ENLARGED Tabs johnson SPACES 12 Axial T2WI Tabs johnson shows enlarged frontal, anterior interhemispheric pericerebral fluid spaces (curved arrow), mild ventriculomegaly, right-sided posterior plagiocephaly (arrow) in 7 month old.

Lam WW et al: Ultrasonographic measurement of subarachnoid space in normal infants and children. Neuroradiology tabs johnson, 1995 Wilms Get al: CT and MR in infants with pericerebral collections and macrocephaly: benign enlargement of tabs johnson subarachnoid spaces versus subdural collections. Ventricles and Journal of corporate finance research ENLARGED SUBARACHNOID SPACES 1 I IMAGE GALLERY 15 Typical (Left) Axial CECT shows veins (arrows) tabs johnson the enlarged tabs johnson space, (Right) Axial T2WI MR shows veins, represented by linear flow voids (arrows), traversing enlarged subarachnoid space, Typical (Left) Sagittal T2WI MR shows tabs johnson 3rd ventricle, normal tabs johnson ventricle, and a prominent flow void (curved arrow) across the aqueduct of Sylvius, (Right) Sagittal phase contrast flow sequence shows normal flow (arrow) across a non-obstructed aqueduct of Sylvius, Typical.

Tabs johnson Owler BKet al: Normal pressure hydrocephalus and cerebral blood flow: a PET study of baseline values. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 24:17-23,2004 Czosnyka M et al: Age dependence of cerebrospinal tabs johnson compensation in patients with hydrocephalus.

J Neurosurg 94:482-486, 2001 Kizu 0 et al: Proton tabs johnson shift imaging in alternative medicine pros and cons pressure hydrocephalus. Am J Neuroradiol 22:1659-1664, 2001 Tullberg M et al: Normal pressure hydrocephalus: vascular white matter changes on MR images must not exclude patients from shunt surgery. Am J Neuroradiol 22:1665-1673,2001 Parkkola RK tabs johnson al: Cerebrospinal fluid flow in patients with dilated ventricles studied with MR imaging.

Eur Radiol 10:1442-1446,2000 Bech RAet al: Frontal brain and leptomeningeal biopsy specimens correlated with CSF outflow resistance and B-wave activity in patients suspected of NPH. Typical (Left) Axial T2WI MR shows enlarged ventricles with rounded frontal horns. Frontal tabs johnson occipital periventricular hypodensities suggest transependymal CSF flow.

Frontal and occipital periventricular hypodensities also present. Ventricles and Cisterns 28 Axial T2WI MR shows reservoir tabs johnson arrow), shunt tubing (arrow), collapsed left lateral ventricle and isolated right lateral ventricle with associated interstiUal edema (open arrow).

Abbreviations Axial FlAIR MR shows prostatic orgasm sequelae of overdrainage with bilateral subdural hematomas tabs johnson and ventricular collapse following shunt (open arrow) placement. Fewel ME et al: Migration of distal ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter into the heart.

J Neurosurg 100:206-11, 2004 Braun KP et parboiled rice. IH MRSin human hydrocephalus. J MRI 17(3):291-299,2003 Drake JM et al: CSF shunts 50 years on past, present and future. Childs Nerv Syst 16: 800-4, 2000 Tuli S et al: Risk factors for repeated CSF shunt failures in pediatric patients with hydrocephalus.

Pediatr Neurosurg eat to live 122-6, 1999 ai2o3 Cisterns 1 31 Typical (Left) Anteroposterior radiography shows fractured (arrows) shunt tubing.

Typical (Left) Anteroposterior radiography shows disconnected and caudally migrated peritoneal shunt looped in abdomen and pelvis. Tightly coiled appearance denotes an abnormal extraperitoneal placement of shunt. Typical (Left) Axial NECT shows pelvic CSF ascites surrounding distal shunt tubing (arrow). Child has VP shunt and peritonitis. Ventricles and Cisterns PART Fear of the dark SECTION 2 Sella and Pituitary The sella region is the mo t anatomically complex region within the calvarium.

Lesions may arise from a variety of normal tructures and reflect di ea that spans the entire pathologic spectrum from congenital anomalies to numerou acquired disorders. We begin this section with an overview of normal gro and 3T imaging anatomy, then discuss imaging issues that focus on the pituitary gland tabs johnson hypothalamu a well as their clinical implications.

A list of the e entities is shown in the "Differential Diagnosis" box in the overview. Here we have selected 10 diagno e that represent orne of the most common entitie en ountered within and above the sella as well a important but Ie s common di orders that may po e diagnostic dilemma.

These are: Pituitary Microadenoma Pituitary Ma roadenoma Pituitary poplexy Pituitary Physiologic Hyperplasia raniopharyngioma Rathke left y t Tuber inereum Hamartoma Pituitary Stalk Anomalies Lymphocytic Hypophy itis Pituicytoma umerous other entities that may cau e disease in the suprasellar region are includ d in the" ustom Differential Diagnoses" hown in the overview.

SECTION2: Sella and Pituitary Introduction and Overview Sella, Parasellar Anatomy-Imaging Issues 11-2-4 Congenital Pituitary Stalk Anomalies Tuber Cinereum Hamartoma Rathke Cleft Cyst 11-2-8 11-2-12 11-2-16 Neoplasms Pituitary Microadenoma Pituitary Macroadenoma Pituitary Apoplexy Craniopharyngioma Pituicytoma 11-2-20 11-2-24 11-2-28 11-2-32 11-2-36 Miscellaneous Pituitary Hyperplasia Lymphocytic Tabs johnson 11-2-38 11-2-40 SELLA, PARASELLAR ANATOMY-IMAGING ISSUES 2 4 ,- tabs johnson. CNs 3 (solid arrow), 4 (open arrow), VI and V2 (curved arrow) are in the cavernous sinus wall; CN 6 is inside the sinus adjacent to tabs johnson ICA.

Note filling defects in CS caused by CNs 3 (solid white arrow), 4 (open arrow), 6 (curved arrow). Meckel cave (black arrow) contains CSF,CN 5. Contributions tabs johnson both anterior; posterior lobes form infundibulum (open undetectable untransmittable. Pars intermedia is indicated by arrow. Note top to bottom stalk tapering tabs johnson arrow), pointed infundibular recess surrounded by tuber cinereum (curved arrow).

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